Terror in the Atlantic: Nazi U-boat Attacks on American Ships during World War II.

September 17, 2017

(Above image: An illustration of a U-boat attack during World War 1. The steamer is sinking in the background, while the German crew on the U-boat watch. Painting by Willy Stöwer,1864–1931)

Most Americans do not realize just how close the Germans were to winning the war in Europe. In 1941, and just before the U.S. entered the fight, most of Europe had already surrendered to Hitler’s aggression, and England was hanging on by her fingernails. It was losing the battle in the Atlantic, suffering as many as 100 warships lost between June and September 1941. In addition to attacking British shipping, both military as well as non-military vessels, the U-boats even targeted ships containing innocent children, such as SS City of Benares, and the SS Voldendam, both passenger liners. The Voldenham was attacked 2 weeks prior to the Benares, and had carried 320 children; luckily it was close to shore and all survived. Both ships were torpedoed at night during a tumultuous storm. On September 18, 1940 the SS City of Benares went down with a loss of 260 people, including 77 children. It was hit by one torpedo directly in the stern and went down in less than 30 minutes.

Because of the heavy German air bombardment in England, the country had set up a program to transport children to safer places during the war. The children on The City of Benares had been on their way to Canada when attacked. Some families, such as the Grimmonds from Brixton, South London, faced an almost unimaginable loss: five of their children — Violet, Connie, Lennie, Eddie and Gussie — had perished. Despite the horrific losses the British refused to give up. The level of fear, however, continued to grow as Hitler’s own words began to resonate and haunt an entire nation, “since foreign seamen cannot be taken prisonerthe U-boats are to surface after torpedoing and shoot up the lifeboats.” The gruesome stories of German ruthlessness stirred the emotions of Americans. They anxiously read and carefully listened to the daily news reports of the war, and particularly the war in the Atlantic. An entire nation wondered what would happen next.

Children boarding a ship for a safe haven during the WW 2.

British children just before leaving Liverpool, England to a safe haven during WW 2. 1940.

British children just before leaving Liverpool, England to a safe haven during WW 2.1940.Image: The National Archives UK @ Flickr CommonsEngland was all that stood in Hitler’s way of conquering Europe. Defeating her, however, required more than the German air bombardment of English cities. Adolph Hitler realized that England’s surrender would occur only when her resources to fight back were shut off. Stopping the flow of merchant ships carrying supplies, especially oil, and military equipment to English harbors was the only answer. The commander of Germany’s U-boat fleet proclaimed that if he had 300 more U-boats, “he could strangle England and win the war.” Many historians agree with that assessment. To defeat Germany, however, required the Allies to destroy their wolf pack, those submersibles which quietly operated in groups, surfaced at night and torpedoed unsuspecting ships, sometimes full of innocent passengers.


German U-boat 1942.By early December 1941, Americans were acutely aware of the almost daily sinking of ships by Nazi U-boats. The war, however, was in Europe, and Americans could read and hear about the terrible atrocities from the comfort of their homes, far from the danger. That changed, however, after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and the United States declared war against Japan. This triggered the Axis Treaty, which was between Japan and Germany, and in return, Germany then declared war on the United States. Within two weeks, Hitler’s high command had sent three U-boats to the shores of the United States.

Striking in the dark of night, and especially during stormy weather, U-boats had proven to be the nightmare of the Atlantic. The U.S. did not anticipate German U-boats coming into U.S. ports. It was also unimaginable that a German vessel would operate in daylight, above the surface, and, in clear view of an American coastline. It was felt that because of the design of the U-boat, it was unlikely that the vessel could even cross the ocean to the American coastlines. With a crew of 44 men, a U-boat was not a pure submarine, but it was considered a submersible watercraft. When surfaced, it was powered by large diesel engines, and when submerged, the engines would shut down, and the vessel would operate off 100 tons of lead-acid batteries. Operating the boat underwater required that the ship had to surface every few hours for air, and the recharging of the batteries off the diesel engines. If spotted, the hull of the ship was easily penetrated by Allied gunfire, and once punctured it would be nearly impossible for it to re-submerge. It would be a death sentence for a U-boat to be spotted on the surface by Allied forces. America was confident that her shores were safe. The Germans, however, were also confident that America was not prepared for a coastal invasion, and they were right.

Allied oil tanker torpedoed by U-boat.

In January 1942, the British Navy officially notified the U.S. Navy that German U-boats had indeed crossed the Atlantic towards the east coast of America. The United States ignored the warnings, and left the coastline unprotected. In England most seaside towns and cities had been shutting off all lights (blackout) at night, but on the east coast of America everything, including ships in port, New York skyscrapers, and street lights, all remained lit up, silhouetted and huge targets.

Within three months, U-boats had sunk so many ships in U.S. waters that Americans thought that the Germans had sent an entire fleet of submarines, instead of only a few. On the bottom of the ocean during the day and rising to the surface at night, by the end of March 1942 bodies began to wash up on the shores from the New York harbor to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

German U-boat operated underwater by batteries, which made the vessels very slow.

The Dallas Morning News offered a running account of U-boat activities along the coast of the United States:

  • January 14 and 15, 1942. In New York harbor two large tanker ship carrying crude oil were torpedoed. The engine room of the SS. Coimbra was quickly engulfed in flames and spread to the entire the ship, killing 36 crewmen. It was reported in the German papers, “ twas a fantastic sight for us, and no doubt a terrifying sight for the Yankees.” Also, and destined for an English harbor, the same U-boat sank the huge tanker SS Norness with three torpedoes, and luckily, with no loss of life. From the bridge, the captain of the U-boat, Reinhardt Hardegen could see the lights of skyscrapers in Manhattan saying, “I cannot describe the feeling in words,” he said “but it was unbelievable and beautiful and great. . . We were the first to be here, and for the first time in this war a German soldier looked out on the coast of the USA.”
  • January 29, 1942. The passenger liner Lady Hawkins was torpedoed and sank so quickly that the crew was not able to signal S0S for assistance. The first torpedo struck the number 2 hold on the port side, and forward of the bridge; the second one wrecked the engine room and the ship lights and power were knocked out. There were 250 killed and 71 survivors. The survivors remained on life boats for five days until rescued, 150 miles off Cape Hatteras. The ship had left the port in Boston.
  • February 2, 1942. The W.L. Steed, an American tanker, was torpedoed off the New Jersey coast in broad daylight leaving 34 dead. As the ship went down, men were getting in the lifeboats, but, the U-boat surfaced and began shelling the ship and the lifeboats.
  • February 6, 1942. The cargo ship Major Wheeler was torpedoed and sank off the coast of Cape Cod with the loss of its entire crew of 35.
  • May 10, 1942. “U-boat Crew Watches as Torpedo Victims Drown” Out of a crew of 35, one survivor was rescued after 14 days on a raft. The survivor stated that the U-boat cruised among the “bobbing heads of the sailors until they thought they were all dead.”
  • June 1, 1942. Off the coast of New Orleans four merchant ships, three of them American, were sunk by U-boats in four days with a loss of 9 sailors.
  • October 14, 1942. On the St. Lawrence River, near Canada, a U-boat sank the railroad passenger ferry SS Caribou. Upon surfacing the U-boat capsized a large life boat, killing 44 in the boat, including a woman who was holding on to her baby. The U-boat then just watched as people drowned. In total, 137 were lost with the sinking of the Caribou.

Many consider the sinking of the Gulf-America, an oil tanker, the most spectacular, as well as outrageous of all U-boat attacks  off the coast of the United States. On April 10, 1942 hundreds of visitors, including a number of military personnel, were enjoying the roller coasters and ferris wheels at an amusement park located in Jacksonville Beach, Florida.  A U-boat slipped in close to the beach and torpedoed the anchored oil tanker. As the ship exploded into massive flames, the U-boat surfaced,  and idled there in full view of the beach, taunting the captive audience of shocked onlookers. Many of the ones along the shore jumped into small watercraft hoping to save some of the ships crews.  Years later the the U-boat captain John Hardegen said in an interview about the attack at Jacksonville Beach, “there was no blackout. I could see the big wheel in the amusement park and all the lights an motorcars and the hotel in full light. It was easy for me, I could see the ship silhouetted against the lights.”

In less than a year, German U-boats had sunk nearly 25% of the commercial tanker fleet that provided supplies to the Allies. Additionally, over 5,000 seamen and passengers were killed in these attacks during early 1942. During January U-boats sank 35 Allied ships and a British destroyer killing 1219 crew and passengers. In March alone, 48 ships were attacked by U-boats, and nearly all were sunk. During the first half of the year German U-boats sank Allied merchant ships, tankers, passenger liners, and of course warships with relatively no challenge. They were easy prey since the forces of the United States generally offered no resistance to the attacks of the German U-boats. In fact, until spring 1942, American ships continued to lie anchored at night with full lights blazing on her decks, and coastal towns and cities made no attempt to dim their lights either. As the numbers of attacks mounted, and tension grew, Americans began voicing their concerns and the military began changing its strategy.


U.S. Navy officers searching for U-boats in the Atlantic.Initially, U.S. authorities began by laying mine fields in harbors, and installing artillery in places that protected significant ports and waterways. Light planes and shore watercraft were ordered to be ready and prepared for battle when U-boats were spotted. The American Navy was highly criticized for not taking some defensive measures sooner. After a number of attempts the British were able to finally persuade the inept U. S. Navy that a new plan had to be developed. The English had been dealing with U-boat attacks for several years and had finally found a successful method to deal with the German Wolfpack. The English began using a system of convoys. Warships would escort groups of merchant ships, with the intentions of luring the submarines into a battle. The U-boats would be forced to surface every few hours, and were then vulnerable for attack from the warships. If the submarines did not surface they would use their radar technology to detect where they were and begin dropping depth charges in those areas.

Operating on the surface was a death sentence for U-boats, as evidenced in this picture. As the war progressed sea planes equipped with radar were able to spot the vessels once the surfaced.On April 14, 1942 the United States sank its first U-boat. Off the coast of North Carolina the destroyer USS Roper used its new radar system to find U-85. After shelling the vessel it began to submerge, but the Roper finished it off with depth chargers. Unfortunately, U-85 had sunk 3 Allied ships before it was stopped. Later that month the United States developed an anti-submarine warfare plan that included 65 anti-submarine vessels, all equipped with the latest in radar technology and loaded with depth chargers. Seaplanes were equipped with seaborne radar, as well as HF/DF (high frequency direction finding) which could enable the detection of U-boats operating on the surface. As more patrol planes became equipped with the technology, the tables were finally turned on the U-boats, and many were attacked at night while operating on the surface. Other measures included not allowing oil tankers to sail unless escorted by warships, and merchant ships traveled in escorted mini-convoys known as bucket brigades. These long overdue measures reduced the effectiveness of the U-boat, and their attacks began to reduce. The most significant and strongest blow to U-boat attacks occurred when commercial shipping ceased sailing at night, and put into protected harbors. The success of U-boat attacks on Allied shipping was due to their element of surprise, and that surprise was generally because they attacked at night, and were able to easily slip away into the darkness. In the end, the cost was great. U-boats sank over 3,500 merchant ships and 175 Allied warships before the Allied Powers destroyed the U-boat fleet, and ultimately the Third Reich.

If you would like additional information please see:

The Dallas Morning News (1942)

The Defeat of the German U-boats:The Battle of the Atlantic, by David Syrett

Wolf Pack:The Story of the U-Boat in World War II, by Gordon Williamson

Miracles on the Water: The Heroic Survivors of a World War II U-Boat Attack,by Tom Nagorski

101 Comments
    1. Great article! We will be linking to this particularly great article on our site.
      Keep up the great writing.

    1. excellent points altogether, you simply gained a new reader.
      What might you recommend in regards to your submit that you simply made some days in the past?
      Any sure?

    1. Good day! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out
      and tell you I truly enjoy reading through your articles.
      Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that
      deal with the same topics? Appreciate it!

    1. That is really interesting, You are a very professional blogger.
      I have joined your feed and look ahead to in search of extra of your fantastic post.
      Additionally, I have shared your website in my social
      networks

    1. A person necessarily assist to make significantly posts I might state.
      This is the very first time I frequented your web
      page and thus far? I amazed with the analysis you made to create this particular put up amazing.
      Great activity!

    1. If you are going for best contents like I do, just visit
      this web site daily for the reason that it gives quality contents, thanks

    1. My brother suggested I might like this web site. He was
      totally right. This post actually made my day. You cann’t imagine just how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

    1. Thanks a bunch for sharing this with all of us you really recognize what you
      are speaking approximately! Bookmarked. Please additionally discuss with my site =).
      We will have a hyperlink trade contract between us

    1. Hey just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let you
      know a few of the images aren’t loading properly. I’m
      not sure why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers
      and both show the same outcome.

    1. Hi there! Someone in my Facebook group shared this
      site with us so I came to take a look. I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers!
      Outstanding blog and wonderful design.

    1. Thanks for some other wonderful post. Where else may anybody get that kind of information in such
      a perfect way of writing? I have a presentation next week,
      and I am on the search for such information.

    1. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it’s really informative.
      I’m gonna watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful if
      you continue this in future. A lot of people will be benefited from your writing.
      Cheers!

    1. I want to to thank you for this very good read!! I certainly loved every little bit of it.
      I’ve got you bookmarked to look at new stuff you post…

    1. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
      Did you make this website yourself or did you hire
      someone to do it for you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to find out where u got this from.
      thanks a lot

    1. I think this is among the most important information for me.

      And i am glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things,
      The site style is wonderful, the articles is really nice
      : D. Good job, cheers

    1. I’m extremely impressed together with your writing talents as well as with the structure in your weblog.
      Is that this a paid theme or did you modify it your self?
      Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it is uncommon to see a nice blog like this one today..

    1. Thank you for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts and I am waiting for your further write
      ups thank you once again.

    1. Good post. I will be going through a few of these issues as well..

    1. Good write-up. I certainly appreciate this website.
      Keep writing!

    1. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long
      as I provide credit and sources back to your website? My blog is in the exact same niche as yours and my visitors would genuinely benefit from a
      lot of the information you provide here. Please let me know if
      this okay with you. Thank you!

    1. Excellent web site you have here.. It’s difficult to find good
      quality writing like yours nowadays. I seriously appreciate people like you!
      Take care!!

    1. This is very attention-grabbing, You are an excessively skilled blogger.
      I have joined your rss feed and sit up for in search of extra of your great
      post. Also, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks

    1. Normally I don’t learn post on blogs, but
      I wish to say that this write-up very forced me to try and do it!

      Your writing style has been surprised me. Thanks, very great post.

    1. Hi! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but after checking through some of the post I
      realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m
      definitely delighted I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back frequently!

    1. I was curious if you ever thought of changing the
      page layout of your blog? Its very well written; I love
      what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way
      of content so people could connect with it better.
      Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or two pictures.
      Maybe you could space it out better?

    1. I am really glad to glance at this weblog posts which includes tons of useful facts, thanks for providing these information.

    1. Hi! I’ve been following your weblog for a long time now
      and finally got the courage to go ahead and give you
      a shout out from Atascocita Texas! Just wanted to mention keep
      up the excellent job!

    1. Very great post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to
      mention that I’ve really loved surfing around your blog posts.

      In any case I will be subscribing for your rss feed
      and I hope you write again very soon!

    1. Amazing blog! Do you have any recommendations for aspiring writers?
      I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost
      on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform
      like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m totally overwhelmed ..
      Any ideas? Thanks!

    1. Hey there! Would you mind if I share your blog with my myspace group?

      There’s a lot of people that I think would really enjoy your content.
      Please let me know. Thank you

    1. After looking over a number of the blog articles on your website, I seriously appreciate your
      technique of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark webpage list and
      will be checking back soon. Take a look at my website too and let me know your
      opinion.

    1. You could certainly see your expertise in the work you write.
      The arena hopes for even more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to
      mention how they believe. At all times go after your heart.

    1. Great post however , I was wondering if you could write a litte more on this subject?
      I’d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit
      more. Thank you!

    1. Greetings! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and say I truly enjoy reading
      your blog posts. Can you suggest any other blogs/websites/forums that deal with the same topics?
      Thank you!

    1. I’ve been surfing online more than 4 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.
      It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all web owners and bloggers
      made good content as you did, the internet will be a
      lot more useful than ever before.

    1. I blog quite often and I genuinely thank you for your information.
      Your article has really peaked my interest. I will book mark your blog
      and keep checking for new information about once per week.

      I subscribed to your RSS feed as well.

    1. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues.

      When I look at your blog in Chrome, it looks fine but when opening in Internet
      Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
      Other then that, fantastic blog!

    1. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to your weblog?
      My blog is in the very same area of interest as yours and my users would really benefit
      from a lot of the information you present here.

      Please let me know if this alright with you.
      Cheers!

    1. I just like the helpful info you provide for your
      articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and check again right here regularly.
      I’m somewhat sure I’ll learn lots of new stuff proper right here!
      Good luck for the next!

    1. My partner and I absolutely love your blog and find nearly
      all of your post’s to be exactly what I’m looking for.
      Do you offer guest writers to write content
      for yourself? I wouldn’t mind producing a post or elaborating on many of the subjects you write related to
      here. Again, awesome web log!

      Also visit my blog: https://crlazio.org (Amos)

    1. Woah! I’m really enjoying the template/theme of this site.

      It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s challenging to get
      that “perfect balance” between usability and visual appearance.
      I must say you’ve done a excellent job with this.
      Additionally, the blog loads super quick for me on Safari.
      Exceptional Blog!

    1. Thanks for one’s marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it,
      you’re a great author.I will always bookmark your blog and
      definitely will come back sometime soon. I want to encourage yourself to
      continue your great work, have a nice holiday weekend!

    1. whoah this weblog is magnificent i like studying your posts.

      Stay up the great work! You recognize, many people are
      looking around for this information, you can help them greatly.

    1. Greetings from Florida! I’m bored to death at work so I decided to browse your blog on my
      iphone during lunch break. I enjoy the information you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I
      get home. I’m surprised at how fast your
      blog loaded on my cell phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G
      .. Anyways, wonderful blog!
      https://www.bloglovin.com/@donghoxwatch/orient-sun-moon-2019-nhat-nguyet-trung-phung

    1. Hurrah, that’s what I was exploring for, what a data! present here at this webpage, thanks admin of
      this site.

      Here is my web page: blog3001

    1. You need to be a part of a contest for one of the highest quality blogs on the internet.
      I will recommend this site!

    1. Marvelous, what a website it is! This web site gives helpful data to us,
      keep it up.

    1. What’s up i am kavin, its my first occasion to commenting anyplace, when i read
      this paragraph i thought i could also create comment due to this brilliant article.

    1. Hi there! This article couldn’t be written any better!

      Reading through this post reminds me of my previous roommate!
      He always kept talking about this. I am going to send this post to him.
      Fairly certain he’ll have a very good read.
      Many thanks for sharing!

    1. Helpful info. Fortunate me I found your website by accident,
      and I am stunned why this twist of fate didn’t happened in advance!
      I bookmarked it.

    1. This blog was… how do you say it? Relevant!! Finally I have found something which helped me.
      Thanks!

    1. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article.

      I will make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post.
      I will definitely comeback.

    1. Generally I do not learn post on blogs, however I wish to say
      that this write-up very compelled me to take a look at and do it!
      Your writing taste has been amazed me. Thank you,
      very nice article.

    1. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I’ve really enjoyed browsing
      your blog posts. In any case I will be subscribing to your
      rss feed and I hope you write again soon!

      Have a look at my webpage blog3001.xyz

    1. Whoa! This blog looks exactly like my old one!
      It’s on a entirely different topic but it has pretty much the same
      layout and design. Outstanding choice of colors!

    1. Have you ever thought about writing an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?
      I have a blog centered on the same topics you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my viewers would enjoy your work.
      If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e mail.

    1. This is the perfect blog for anyone who wants to find out about this topic.

      You realize so much its almost tough to argue
      with you (not that I really would want to…HaHa).

      You definitely put a brand new spin on a topic that has been discussed for ages.
      Excellent stuff, just excellent!

      Have a look at my web-site :: blog3006.xyz

    1. With havin so much written content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright infringement?
      My website has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either created myself or
      outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up all over the
      internet without my agreement. Do you know any
      methods to help stop content from being ripped off? I’d definitely appreciate it.

    1. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was curious what all is needed to get
      setup? I’m assuming having a blog like yours
      would cost a pretty penny? I’m not very web smart so I’m not 100% positive.
      Any tips or advice would be greatly appreciated.
      Appreciate it

    1. Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an very long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn’t appear.
      Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyways, just wanted to say excellent blog!

    1. Greetings! I’ve been following your web site for a while now and finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you
      a shout out from Kingwood Texas! Just wanted to tell you keep up the
      good job!

    1. I used to be suggested this web site by means of my cousin. I am not sure whether or not this
      put up is written through him as nobody else realize such special approximately my difficulty.
      You’re incredible! Thanks!

    1. This article is actually a nice one it helps new the web visitors, who are wishing in favor of blogging.

    1. Simply wish to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your post is
      simply spectacular and i could assume you are an expert on this subject.
      Fine with your permission let me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.

      Thanks a million and please continue the rewarding work.

    1. Wow, amazing blog layout!
      How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look
      easy. The overall look of your site is great, let alone the content!

    1. We stumbled over here from a different web address and thought I might
      as well check things out. I like what I see so i am just following you.
      Look forward to looking over your web page yet again.

    1. Hi I am so thrilled I found your webpage, I really found you by mistake, while
      I was browsing on Google for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say thank you for a tremendous post and a all round entertaining blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all at the moment
      but I have saved it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I
      have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the great work. https://anunturi-parbrize.ro/index.php?page=167

    1. Hi I am so thrilled I found your webpage, I really found you by mistake, while I was browsing on Google
      for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would
      just like to say thank you for a tremendous post and a all round entertaining blog (I also love the
      theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all at the moment but I have saved it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time
      I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the great work. https://anunturi-parbrize.ro/index.php?page=167

    1. whoah this blog is excellent i like studying your articles.
      Keep up the great work! You recognize, lots of individuals are looking around for this info,
      you can help them greatly.

    1. Hi my friend! I wish to say that this article is awesome,
      great written and include almost all important infos.
      I would like to see more posts like this .

    1. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your weblog.

      You have some really great articles and I believe I would be a good asset.
      If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d really like to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.
      Please blast me an e-mail if interested. Many thanks!

    1. I’m not that much of a online reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up!
      I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back later
      on. Cheers

    1. Wonderful work! This is the kind of info that are
      meant to be shared around the net. Disgrace on Google for not positioning this submit higher!
      Come on over and visit my website . Thank you =)

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published.